A sentence is generally composed of one or more clauses.
A Chinese sentence can be carved up into different parts, which each part playing a different grammatical role in the sentence.
The most common elements of a Chinese sentence are as follows:
Subject: Usually, the subject comes at the beginning of the sentence and is followed by the predicate.
My mother will travel on May.
Wǒ de mǔqīn jiāng qiánwǎng wǔ yuè.
The dog of Ms. Wong is very cute.
Huáng nǚshì dì gǒu hěn kěài
Predicate: This part states the subject.
Mary and John like to eat chocolate cake.
Mǎlì hé yuēhàn xǐhuan chī qiǎokèlì dàngāo.
He speaks Chinese language very well.
Ta kōjū bun hijō kō.
These sentences are composed by using 吗 - (Ma) or 没有 - (Méiyǒu) at the end of a declarative sentence or a simple sentence.
Has she finished her homework?
Yǒu tā wánchéng gōngkè ma?
Do you want this apple?
Nǐ xiǎng zhège píngguǒ ma?
Have they lost their wallets?
Yòu shīqù le zìjǐ de qiánbāo méiyǒu?
Does Mary come to dinner?
Mǎ lì yǎ lái dào chīfàn méiyǒu?
This kind of sentence is just the common sentence composed by Subject + Verb + Complement.
Mary likes to sing sad songs.
Mǎlì xǐhuan chàng bēishāng de gē.
They don't know math as well as we.
Tāmen bù zhīdào shùxué yǐjí wǒmen.
China is a global leader country.
Zhōngguó shì quánqiú lǐngxiān de guójiā.
Chinese people like to eat rice.
Zhōngguó rén xǐhuan chī mǐfàn.
These sentences are formed by placing 没 - (Méi) or 没有 - (Méiyǒu) in the front of the main verb in the sentence.
She doesn't know the answer.
Tā méi zhīdào dáàn.
Mary and Taylor don't dance together.
Mǎlì hé tàilēi méi yīqǐ tiàowǔ.
He doesn't attend to Chinese language class.
Tā méiyǒu cānjiā zhōngwén xuéxí bān.
We don't like this kind of food.
Wǒmen méiyǒu xǐhuan zhè zhǒng shíwù.